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Phases of Natural Language Processing (NLP)

Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Natural Language Generation (NLG) have gained importance in the field of Machine Learning (ML) due to the critical need to understand text, with its varying structure, implied meanings, sentiments, and intent. Natural Language Processing and Natural Language Generation have removed many of the communication barriers between humans and computers by translating machine language into human language.

Natural Language Processing (NLP) is a field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) that makes human language intelligible to machines.  Then, computer science transforms this linguistic knowledge into rule-based, machine learning algorithms that can solve specific problems and perform desired tasks.

NLP falls primarily under 4 phases(do not confuse phases with stages, stages are different).

  1. Morphological/lexical phase – word-level processing. You will see that most of the NLP companies belong here. Mostly the machine learning/deep learning kids using NLP. It involves identifying and analyzing the structure of words. Lexicon of a language means the collection of words and phrases in a language. Lexical analysis is dividing the whole chunk of text into paragraphs, sentences, and words.
  2. Syntactical – Here is where parsing comes in. Sentence-Level processing of information. Parts of speeches will be the critical component here. It involves analysis of words in the sentence for grammar and arranging words in a manner.
  3. Semantics – If you know the difference between grammatical functions and grammatical elements you will know what semantics is. For eg: when we move from understanding parts of a sentence as a noun, verb, noun phrases, etc to a higher level as subject, object, predicate, etc, we move to semantics from syntax.
  4. Pragmatics – This is about the context. You won’t see many people working on this phase. The main reason is that the context is very strict and cannot be interpreted universally. At Adzis, we have a partial mechanism that is very much closed within only our schema and semantics.

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